Analogy is just a term that means "word relationships".

Analogies are sometimes formatted as follows:

 [word 1] : [word 2] : : [word 3] : [word 4]

In this analogy format, : reads "is to" and : : reads "as"

This means that

water : liquid : : ice : solid

is read as

Water is to liquid as ice is to solid.

Here are some of the most frequently used analogies:
( Source: )

Category Sample Analogy
Synonyms end: terminate
Antonyms artificial: real
Worker and Tool Used photographer: camera
Tool and Object Its Used Upon scissors: paper
Worker and Object He Creates poet: poem
Cause and Effect negligence: accident
Effect and Cause tsunami: earthquake
Material Used and End Product lumber: house
Function of a Tool saw: cut
Part to Whole leaf: tree
Person and What He Looks For mineralogist: ore
Person and What He Avoids student: failure
Masculine and Feminine host: hostess
Age infant: adolescent
Person and Closely Related Adjective commander: competent
Person and Least Related Adjective commander: coward
Symbol and What It Stands For rose: love
Mathematical Relationship seven: forty-nine
Measurement mile: distance
Classification and Type dog: greyhound
Degree of Intensity cold: pneumonia

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